excerpt: \'bottled & sold\' by peter h. gleick
Look at why so many Americans drink water in plastic bottles. -
Many of them were eventually landfill sites on a large scale.
Gleick, the winner of the MacArthur scholarship and chairman of the Pacific Institute for Development, Environment and Safety, argues in his book that there is a new perspective on water management, \"The story behind our obsession with bottled water.
Read an excerpt from this book below, and then go to the library of \"global assessment of the state of the marine environment\" for more good books.
Tap water is poison. —
Leaflets promoting Texas bottled water company shares.
The tap water will be downgraded to shower and wash dishes when we are done. —
Susan Wellington, president of the American Beverage division of Guige oats.
September 15, 2007 is an important day for alumni, family and fans of the University of Central Florida and the UCF Knight soccer team.
After years of waiting and waiting, the University of Central Florida has finally built its own football field --
New network arena of Bright House.
In the clear sky, the temperature is close to 100 degrees,
Watch the first game in a crowd of 45,622 people
Home game with Texas Longhorn, a truly national powerhouse of the California University Federation.
\"I never thought we \'d see this, but we\'re proud to have a stadium on campus,\" said Tim Ball, a UCF alumnus and Knight fan, he and his family parked in the parking lot before the game.
In the exciting threehour back-and-
In Game 4, the UCF Cavaliers were almost out of frustration before losing the game in the last 35 to 32 minutes.
The Knights supporters are excited and eager for moreliterally.
Fans have found their new hard way to $54
Millions of stadiums were built without a water dispenser.
For \"safety\" reasons, no one can bring water into the stadium.
For overheated fans, the only water available is the $3 bottled water for the franchisor or the water for the bathroom faucet, which was run out long before the game was over.
18 people were taken to local hospitals and 60 others were treated by medical staff on campus
On 2005, when the board of directors of the California University Federation approved the design of the stadium, the 2004 Florida Building Code stipulated that the stadium and other public stadiums have a fountain for every 1,000 seats, or if there is a \"bottled water dispenser\", half of that number.
According to these requirements, there should be at least 20 fountains in the arena.
In addition, a spokesman for the Washington International Regulatory Commission, which developed Florida building regulations, said, \"selling bottled water from a franchise station is not what the regulations mean.
\"The initial response from the university was very prompt and unapologetic: UCF spokesman Grant Heston appeared on local TV news arguing that the code developed during the stadium design did not require a fountain.
A few days after the game, with the echo of the hospital News, University President John Hitt said, \"we will consider adding water dispensers, but I have to say to you, I don\'t think that\'s the answer to this question.
We could have had 50 water dispensers, but something went wrong on Saturday.
Al Harms, vice president of strategic planning at the UCF and coordinator of stadium operations, told the Orlando Sentinel about the installation of the fountain at the new stadium, \"we will not make a decision right away \".
Harms promises that they will double the number of bottled water available for sale and give each person a complimentary bottle of bottled water in the next game.
Harms also said there was clearly no irony, \"This is the way we say sorry.
\"It\'s not enough for some UCF students.
One of them, nazarille Dorn, at 20-
Fashion of the century.
He created a Facebook group called Free water rider, which soon attracted nearly 700 members.
He and several other students attended a crowded school hearing, talked to local TV and print media, and laughed at the free bottled water provided by the school.
Under this kind of attention, the university suddenly made
Face announced that 10 fountains will be installed in the next competition, and 50 fountains will be installed permanently.
All of a sudden, the public water dispenser is gone and bottled water is everywhere: in every convenience store, drink cooler, and vending machine.
In the student backpack, the airplane drink car and all my hotel rooms.
At every meeting I attended
Restaurant menu and school lunch counter.
When I was waiting for a meeting in Silicon Valley in early 2007, I saw a steady stream of young employees passing in and out of Google campus.
Almost everyone has two things with them: a laptop and a throw --
A bottle of water.
When I entered the lobby and checked in at reception, I was told to drink something from an open cooler with juice and a row of commercial bottled water.
As I walked to the meeting, I passed the bottled water tank that was unloading near the cafeteria.
Fountains used to be everywhere, but the fountains have slowly disappeared as public water has been squeezed out more and more in favor of private control and profit.
The water dispenser has become an out-of-place thing, or even a responsibility, and it symbolizes the days when every convenience store and corner franchise store has no taps and bottled water. In our health-
We are concerned that public fountains and our tap water are the source of pollution and infection.
It used to be the opposite-
In the 1800 s, when safe water was not widely available in our cities, there was a major campaign to build free public water dispensers in the United States and across Europe.
In central London
In their 1800 s, water began to be delivered directly to the homes of wealthy urban residents.
However, the poor rely on private water providers and nearby wells, which are often damaged or contaminated by pollution and disease, such as the famous wide street water pump, which spreads cholera throughout the community.
At the large exhibition in London in 1851, the idea showed people the success of technology, science and innovation, wrote in Chong magazine: \"No matter who can produce a cup of water suitable for drinking in London, will all contribute the best and most universally useful articles throughout the exhibition.
Just three years after the exhibition, thousands of Londoners will be killed in the third massive cholera outbreak since 1800.
Great efforts to improve water resources by the 20 th century
Quality treatment and major investment in modern drinking
The water system almost completely eliminates the risk of unsafe water use.
Those of us fortunate enough to live in the industrialized world now take safe drinking water for granted.
We turn on the tap and flow out safely, usually free fresh water.
Despite the defeat of the UCF Stadium, we are rarely more than a few feet away from drinking water wherever we are.
However, these efforts and investments are in danger of being wasted, and there are also losses in the public interest of safe tap water, which is conducive to the private interest in the form of small plastic bottles.
The growth of the bottled water industry is about 20-
The struggle and contradiction of the century: Poverty and glitz
Perception and Reality
Private gains and public losses.
Today, people visit the luxurious \"bar\" filled with water bottles shipped from all over the world.
The \"sommelier\" of high-end restaurants has introduced high-end bottled water to meet demand and increase profits.
Airport travelers have no choice but to buy bottled water at too high a price as their own personal water is considered a safety risk.
Celebrities promote their favorite brand of bottled water to fans.
Too much money, people who feel too little pay $50 or more in a luxury glass bottle covered with fake gems, or bottle in some exotic places or treat \"premium\" water with some magical craft.
In its modern form, bottled water is a new phenomenon that grows from a special mineral
We can find some aquatic products with rich customers almost all over the world.
Recent growth in bottled water sales has been phenomenal.
In late 1970, about 0. 35 billion gallons of bottled water were sold in the United States.
Almost entirely sparkling mineral water and large bottles for Office water dispensers
Or a gallon and a half a year per person.
As shown in the following figure, during the period from 1976 to 2008, sales of bottled water in the United States doubled, and then doubled.
2008, nearly 9 billion gallons (
More than 34 billion liters)
Bottled water is packaged and sold in the United States, and this number is sold five times around the world, supporting the global business of water suppliers, bottling providers, truck drivers, for consumers, retailers who spend more than billions of dollars.
Americans now drink more bottled water than milk and beer.
In fact, Americans drink an average of 30 gallons (about 115 liters) of bottled water a year, most of which come from
Bottled water has become ubiquitous and it\'s hard to remember that it\'s not always here.
When I wrote this, I was sitting in a cafe in the basement of the Capitol in Sacramento, California, and all I had to do was raise my eyes from the computer screen --
Right in front of me is the vending machine that sells Dasani and Aquafina.
However, I can\'t tell you where the nearest fountain is, just like the UCF football fans.
Millions of Americans still drink tap water at home and in restaurants.
But there is a war of mind, mind and wallet for those who drink tap water, which is a huge market that bottled water merchants cannot ignore.
The war on the faucet is largely an unannounced war, but in recent years, it has become more and more subtle (
Not so subtle)
Private bottled water companies have launched a campaign to exaggerate the so-called health risks of tap water, or the so-called health advantages of bottled water.
How do you convince consumers to buy basically the same thing as cheaper, easier-to-get alternatives?
You advertise the advantages of your product and you emphasize the defects of your competitor\'s product.
For bottled water, this means that sales are safe, stylish and convenient and take advantage of the fears of consumers.
Fear is an effective tool.
Especially fear of disease and invisible pollution.
If we worry about our tap water, the bottled water market will soar.
I don\'t think I should be surprised, so when I open my mailbox and find a flyer with a picture of the cover of a goldfish swimming in a glass of drinking water.
\"There\'s something in this Cup that you don\'t want to drink.
\"It\'s not a fish,\" shouted the bold and colorful words in the mail, offering me several bottles of Calistoga mountain spring water.
\"How can you be sure your water is safe?
Take a closer look at the water in our glass.
Can you tell if it\'s pure?
Unfortunately, you can\'t.
\"What is the solution provided?
The \"Road to purity\" is a few bottles of water delivered by truck to your doorstep under a monthly contract.
\"Tap water is poison!
My neighbor, Roy, received another leaflet in an email in early 2007 to promote Royal Spring stock.
A Texas bottled water company
Americans no longer believe in their tap water. . . .
Obviously, people are more worried about things in the faucet than ever before.
\"Roy, a thoughtful person, told me that he was actually more worried about things in the mailbox than his faucet.
The website of another bottling company said, \"tap water may be inconsistent. . . . The U. S.
The Environmental Protection Agency reported that hundreds of water sources failed to meet the minimum standards.
\"These attacks may be considered inappropriate by some small players, except that some of the world\'s largest bottling makers also target tap water.
In 2000, before he was appointed chairman of PepsiCo\'s North American beverage and food division, Robert S.
Morrison declared publicly: \"Tap water is the biggest enemy. . . .
We don\'t object to water.
It just has its location.
We think this is good for irrigation and cooking.
In the same year, Susan Wellington, president of the US beverage division at guigale oats, told industry analysts frankly, \"when we\'re done, tap water will be downgraded to shower and wash dishes.
\"We need to change the way we sell water,\" industry analyst Catherine Lantham said at 2006 annual meeting of the International Bottled Water Association.
\"When will consumers turn to the faucet?
\"Subtle ways of advertising also play a role in our fears.
Pepsi hired actress Lisa cudero to promote Aquafina in a sports brand weekly magazine called \"nothing\" and joked \"so pure, we don\'t have anything
India\'s Kinley offers \"every drop of trust\", while Bisleri, another Indian bottling maker, promotes \"Bisleri \". Play safe.
\"The official statement is that the large bottled water industry association advises members not to attack tap water.
Some bottled water companies have signed a voluntary advertising code for the International Bottled Water Association, \"which encourages members not to belittle tap water.
\"Alas, as Captain Barbosa pointed out in the popular film Pirates of the Caribbean,\" the code is more in line with what you call \'guiding principles than the actual rules \', \"Even the Bottled Water Association can\'t help but criticize tap water.
IBWA spokesman Stephen Kay said in May 2001: \"The difference between bottled water and tap water is that the quality of bottled water is consistent, which of course means that the quality of tap water is not so bad.
In 2002, Kay said, \"Some people have good water resources in their municipal markets. Others do not.
\"12 similarly, the website of the Australian Bottled Water Association attacked tap water and said,\" Some people also want to avoid the use of certain chemicals, such as chlorine and fluorine, when dealing with public water supply, so it\'s turning to chemicals.
\"In the fall of 2007, I attended the IBWA annual meeting in Las Vegas.
It is a very uncoordinated place to hold a bottled water conference here.
It is planted in the center of one of the driest areas in the United States and has very limited access to water.
However, IBWA\'s main social event is a golf tournament on the water --
Intensive grass that consumes precious limited water.
The bottled water conference itself is a mobilization conference, a political campaign conference and how
Hold seminars for people who want to profit from the bottled water boom.
I go from one meeting to another, from discussion of marketing strategy to closed discussion --
Door meeting on how to respond to new regulatory efforts by federal agencies.
I listened to a conversation about how to deal with the efforts of anti-bottled water activists and watched a demo of the latest bottled water machines.
The climax of the conference was a keynote speech by Fred Smith, chairman of the Institute for competitive enterprise, which advocates libertarianism, Liberalismmarket agenda.
Smith praised the merits of a world where business entrepreneurs can sell water with bottles to make money.
The problem, Smith later told me, is that water is \"the easiest to be seen as a common property resource\" without a hint of irony.
Smith believes that \"the exploration of strategies for the production of oil can greatly benefit from water policy.
\"15. there is the view that water is no different in nature from oil or any other private goods that are at the heart of the dispute over the sale of water.
A few months after the IBWA conference, Smith\'s Competitive Enterprise Institute launched a special project called \"enjoy bottled water,\" in which they criticized the safety of tap water, laugh at the promotion of bottled water industry.
\"Bottled water is very different from tap water,\" CEI said . \"
\"The risk of tap water seems to be higher compared to bottled water. . . .
Data show that the safety record of bottled water is better.
\"CEI is so anti-ideologically.
The site says, \"It\'s ridiculous that anyone wants to ban or regulate healthy and safe options like bottled water.
\"16 it may not be strange to notice coca --
Da Sani bottled water maker Coke is the biggest supporter of CEI\'s annual fundraising dinner for 2008.
The campaign against municipal tap water is more than just language.
Documents found on coca on 2001
The Coca-Cola website revealed that it has a formal program that actively prevents restaurant customers from drinking tap water.
Chain restaurant with Olive Garden Coca-
Coke developed six
Step Plan to help restaurants reduce their so-called \"tap water incidence-
The customer drinks tap water instead of the unprofitable problem of ordering income --
\"About 20% of consumers only drink tap water in casual restaurants,\" the project lamented . \".
This trend has greatly reduced the profits of retailers. . . .
In order to better understand why tap water consumption is so common and why consumers choose this drink, studies have been conducted. . . .
This study provides valuable insights and understanding needed to turn drinkers into profits
\"These files, when the media discovered the story, were quickly removed from the official website and have been downloaded and re-published elsewhere.
\"This is great,\" commented one reader . \"
\"This is what companies say to each other behind their customers. only on the Internet can mortals see it.
\"It\'s not just that the bottled water company sees tap water. Full-
The service restaurant has recognized the profit-
The potential to generate bottled water.
For example, the servers of restaurants operated by Omni hotels and resorts were trained to describe \"features of the waters provided\" and also to approach the table with ice bottle water.
They offer it to guests as an option for running water, \"said Fernando Salazar, company director of the food and beverage department, in 2006.
\"Providing bottled water before providing tap water is only part of the server demo,\" says Salazar . \".
\"Those restaurants that haven\'t done so have missed the opportunity to increase profits.
\"20 Brita is a subsidiary of Clorox, which sells household water filters and is also particularly active in transforming tap water, as tap water is their direct competitor in the home market.
An advertising campaign by Brita claims that the Brita filter \"turns tap water into drinking water \".
Other UK ads said, \"We want to clarify something about running water.
The tap water turned into wonderful water.
\"Impurities often enter the water.
You may not see them, but you don\'t want them.
\"21 one of the Brita TV commercials aired in the United States and Canada took a particularly vivid approach, with the camera focusing on a glass of water in the kitchen.
The audience watched the glass drain and then refilled the background sound of the flush toilet.
The words \"tap water and toilet water come from the same source\" are superimposed on the picture, sound
At the end of the ad, the audience asked, \"shouldn\'t you get better ? \"?
In the magazine version, the ad copywriter wrote, \"you should get something better than dragging water with a mop.
\"22 these efforts have caused outrage from the American Water Association, which represents the municipal water supply agency, and its Canadian counterparts.
The associations openly opposed Brita\'s \"nasty strategy\" and called on Brita to cancel the ad.
Canadian advertising standards, which oversees advertising, received 11 formal complaints and, after reviewing the ads, ruled that they \"communicated an inaccurate representation of the product/service/business activity \";
Missing relevant information;
Unfairly demeaning, demeaning and denigrating another product/service/business activity (i. e.
Municipal water supply);
And use their concerns about the safety of drinking water to mislead consumers.
\"Judging from the huge increase in bottled water consumption, it is clear that bottled water companies have won the war against tap water.
In their latest campaign strategy, the bottled water industry is arguing in debates, congressional testimony, advertising, and media propaganda says that the growth in bottled water sales is not at the expense of tap water, at the expense of other commercial drinks.
On 2003, Stephen Kay, spokesman for the International Bottled Water Association, told E-
Environmental Magazine \"The competitor of bottled water is soft drinks, not tap water.
On 2006, he told the \"Morning phone\" column of the Chicago Tribune, \"the competition for bottled water is not your faucet, but soft drinks, juices, sports drinks, tea that people buy on the go.
The industry continues to push this argument.
They bought it in August 2007.
Page ads for The New York Times and other newspapers.
\"Whether it\'s a tap or a bottle, drinking water is an easy step for people to live a healthy lifestyle.
So, as far as we are concerned, the drinks in each person\'s wallet, backpack and lunch box should be water.
\"On December 2007, in the testimony of the United StatesS.
Joe Doss, chairman of IBWA, said, \"consumers also choose bottled water instead of other drinks because it doesn\'t contain calories, caffeine, sugar, artificial spices or colors, alcohol and other ingredients.
The industry believes that 26 bottled water consumption is good because the growth in bottled water sales is not at the expense of tap water, but at the expense of other beverages.
Apart from the fact that it is false, it is an interesting and potentially powerful argument.
After hearing the industry repeat this statement over and over again, I went to check the actual numbers.
Do we really drink bottled water instead of soft drinks and other consumer drinks, as industry insiders say, or do we actually drink less tap water? The U. S.
The Ministry of Commerce collects and publishes excellent data on beverage consumption.
Contrary to what the bottled water industry says, the data shows that we are buying more bottled water and carbonated soft drinks, while everything else, including milk, coffee, tea, juice, beer, wine, strong wine, especially tap water.
Statistics clearly show that consumption of soft drinks and bottled water is growing, while everything else we drink is decreasing.
In fact, between 1980 and 2006, beverage consumption data showed that each of us now consumes about 36 gallons of tap water per year on average.
What did we replace the water?
Soda and bottled water.
During the same period, our consumption of carbonated soft drinks increased by 17 gallons per year, and the consumption of bottled water increased by 25 gallons per year, including the purchase of all other beverages including milk, juice, beer, tea, coffee, and the liquor is reduced by 6 gallons per year.
The beverage company is winning the war on tap water.
As long as people can be afraid of running water, they will look for alternatives that they think are safer.
But we have to ask: is bottled water really safer?
What do we know about things in tap water?
Or in the bottle we bought?
How safe is drinking?
Chapter 11 endnote.
See the UCF press release of Tom Evelyn on July 11, 2005 (.
Rss = psp & psp = News)
Statement the board \"has not yet held a formal vote on whether to build the stadium.
\"Similarly, in the report submitted by stadium architect 360 construction company to the board of directors of the UCF on March 31, 2005, all permits for the stadium will be completed by July 2005, after the implementation of the 2004 building code.
Orlando Sentinel reported on September 22, 2007: \"Code group: University of Central Florida did not comply with drinking water rulesfrom webster.
Htm, visit August 10, 2008).
See also table 403.
2004 1 of the Florida Building Code, which states that the stadium (A-
Class 5 buildings)
There must be a fountain for every 1000 residents.
2001 The requirements in table 403 of the Florida pipeline specification appear to be the same. 1, chap. 4, p. 4. 1 (
See _ pipe/FL_Plumbing. htm). 2.
UCF will install water dispensers in the new stadium (video), . com/watch? v=4t-
About 44S_gebI and function = (
Visit September 18, 2007). 3.
Luis Zaragoza and Claudia zequila, \"talk to fans in hot water: there is no water dispenser in the stadium;
Sentinel Orlando, September 18, 2007, students are eager to get answers. 4. See See (
Visit September 12, 2008). 6.
Dave Carpenter, \"eager to dominate completely, Gatorade declared war on tap water,\" the Denver Post, May 28, 2000. 7. See (
Visit September 19, 2008). 8.
Brendan Buller, \"conference collapse: International Association of bottled water\", Las Vegas Sun, October 9, 2006. 9.
In July 2, 2001, Brandweek, \"Aquafina hired Kudrow to promote the \'no\' campaign \"(
Visit December 10, 2009). 10.
On May 7, 2005, the new ABC News 20/20 mistake about bottled water released by the International Bottled Water Association. 11.
Jonathan Fowler was quoted by The Associated Press on May 2, 2001 as \"Research: Bottled water is not better\". 12. See (
Visit September 12, 2008). 13.
Australian Bottled Water Association website.
Exe/WService = ASP0003/ccms. r? PageId=5002 (
Visit December 10, 2009). 14.
On its website (www. cei. org/about)
CEI described himself as \"a public interest group dedicated to free enterprise and limited government\", visited in December 10, 2009. 15. Fred Smith, e-
Email to the author, October 21, 2007. 16. See (
Visit September 15, 2009). 17. Jody Clarke (CEI), e-
Email to the author, September 17, 2008. 18. The Coca-
Coke Company, \"Olive Garden won with tap water as its target! \" from (
Download on August 21, 2001).
See also David Gallagher, Times of New York, August 21, 2001. 19. See (
Visit September 10, 2008).
Meta filter quote. com, 9399/ (
Visit December 10, 2009). 20. See (
Visit September 10, 2008). 21.
For example, see full-In Brita-
On January 16, 1995, a page ad in New York magazine titled \"We want to clarify something about running water \"(22)
, Or the Brita ad in the Ebony magazine, which was released in October 2003, describes their water tank \"turning tap water into drinking water \"(146). 22.
Successful advertising in Canada case 2007: Brita (
Visit December 10, 2009). 23.
Advertising complaint report-Canadian advertising standardQ3 2006,\" (
Visit December 10, 2009). 24.
Brian Howard, \"despite the hype, bottled water is not cleaner and greener than tap water,\" E-
Environmental Magazine, December 9, 2003
Visit December 10, 2009). 25.
On September 10, 2006, the Chicago Tribune, Gregory Karp, \"The Morning Call: tap water may be more suitable for your bill than bottled water . \".
Also, see Kay in (
Visit March 16, 2009). 26.
Written testimony by Joseph K.
Doss, Chairman and CEO of the International Bottled Water Association, Domestic Policy Subcommittee of the House Oversight and Government Reform Commission.
Washington, D. C. held a hearing to assess the environmental risks of groundwater extraction in the bottled water industryC.
December 12, 2007.