We don’t trust drinking fountains anymore, and that’s bad for our health
As a jazz band with grooves in the background, vested and the owner wearing gloves led the guests to the star attraction: The Fountain.
The event, called \"respect Fountain\", was held by a group that is unlikely to complete the task --
Let the fountain cool again.
The fountain, once a respected feature in urban life, is a celebration of the huge technical and political capital needed to provide clean drinking water to the community.
They are in crisis today.
Although no one tracks the number of public fountains across the country, researchers say the fountains are disappearing from parks, schools and stadiums in the United States.
\"Over the past few decades, water dispensers have disappeared from public places across the country,\" lamented Nancy Stoner, administrator of the water authority of the Environmental Protection Agency.
Peter Glick, a water scholar, wrote that they have become \"a mistake of the times, even a responsibility.
Jim Salzman, author of drinking water: history, says they are \"taking the road to pay phones \".
\"Even international plumbing norms, and builders in most American cities, show that fountains are outdated.
In version 2015 of the manual, which advises on the number of bathrooms the office should have and how the pipes should work, the authors cut the number of fountains needed for each building by half.
This loss was not caused by some major technical disruption. While U. S.
Bottled water consumption quadrupled between 1993 and 2012 (to 9.
67 billion gallons per year), this is not so much a cause as a symptom.
Over the past 20 years, our attitude towards public space, government and water has changed.
\"Most people over 40 years old have very positive water dispenser stories when they were young,\" Scott Francisco said . \" He helped organize the Union Square event and conducted a pilot project for the city design company
The feeling today, however, is, \"they are dangerous, unmaintained, and dirty.
All in all, we no longer trust the public fountain.
It makes us poorer, healthier and less eco-friendly.
In 1859, the first free public fountain of modern was unveiled in London.
Thousands of people gathered to watch officials turn on the tap.
At the peak of the fountain, about 7,000 people use the fountain every day.
At that time, the rich were buying water from the country.
The poor drink water bottled with sewage. River Thames. Water-
Infectious diseases such as cholera and typhoid are rampant.
By providing clean water for free, the fountain changed it all.
By 1879, there are 800 fountains in London.
American cities follow suit.
In 1859, New York launched its first fountain at City Hall Park.
Detroit, Philadelphia and San Francisco soon built their own cities.
By 1920, free chlorine water is provided in most cities.
The benefits of public health are obvious.
According to the National Bureau of Economic Research, half of the decline in urban deaths between 1900 and 1940 can be attributed to improved water quality.
\"Municipal chlorine water is considered another modern evolution,\" says Francis H . \"
Chapelle, a water writer, is also the author of spring: the Natural History of bottled water.
\"It\'s basically about shutting down bottled water.
By 1930, bottled water has become \"low grade\" and is used only for offices and factories that can\'t afford to buy pipes, Chapelle said.
When Perrier in Europe looked at the American market, attitudes began to shift in the 1970 s.
In 1977, the company spent $5 million on an advertising campaign in New York to market itself as a stylish, upscale product.
The yarpies packed it up.
\"It\'s a way of life --
\"Define the product,\" says Chapelle. By 1982, U. S. bottled-
The amount of water used has doubled to 3.
4 gallons per person per year.
See an opportunity, AmericaS.
Beverage producers followed suit from Perrier.
Pepsi launched Aquafina in 1994. Coca-
Coca-Cola joined the club in 1999 with Dasani.
Local brands, however, cannot boast of their fascinating European origins.
Instead, they make Americans afraid of faucets.
An advertisement for Royal Spring Water claimed that \"tap water is poison.
Another reporter from Calistoga mountain spring asked, \"How can you be sure your water is safe ? \". . .
Unfortunately, you can\'t.
The label says Fiji because it\'s not bottled in Cleveland.
\"Of course, the implication is that there is something wrong with the local water.
Americans accept this message because of the rise of environmental protectionism.
In response to pressure from militants, the government has drafted measures such as the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974.
The legislation makes water safer by limiting dumping and setting standards for contaminants.
But this has unintended consequences: As municipalities have to inform residents of pollution immediately, Americans who trust tap water are now bombarded with warnings that there may be risks.
In 1986, a EPA study concluded that tap water used by at least 38 million Americans contained dangerous levels of lead.
According to The Wall Street Journal, sales of bottled water and filters soared in the weeks after the report was released.
In Washington, residents asked district officials for a sampling test.
(In 1985, fewer than 30 requests were made.
In 1986, there were at least 883 people.
Congress held hearings and the municipalities took swift action to eliminate risks.
But the damage has been done.
Between 1973 and 1988, the proportion of Americans who say they are very concerned about tap
According to Gallup, water pollution has risen from 32% to 66%.
In response, bottled
Water sales began to rise.
In 1987, Americans consumed about seven gallons of bottled water each year.
We drink 34 gallons a year in 2014.
Americans now drink more bottled water than milk and beer.
Today, according to Gallup, 77% of Americans are worried about pollution in drinking water, although tap water and bottled water are treated the same way, and research shows that tap is as safe as bottled water.
If you don\'t believe in tap water, you won\'t believe in the water dispenser.
So when you are in public space, it is unlikely that you will be looking for a fountain or complaining when there is no fountain.
Depending on the pipe and location, the installation cost of the new fountain is between $300 and $4,500.
When the municipal budget is tight, cutting fountains can be a way to lower costs without causing public anger.
\"No one died of thirst in the United States,\" Gleick said . \".
\"But the maintenance failure of public water dispensers encourages people to look for moisture elsewhere.
When people no longer care about public water supply. . .
[Will] keep it going.
The disappearance of the water dispenser has damaged the health of the public.
Researchers at the Centers for Disease Control, Stephen onfreak, found that the lower the trust young people have in water dispensers, the more sugary drinks they drink.
The study found that children who regularly drink sugary drinks are 60% more likely to develop obesity, while adults who do so are 26% more likely to develop type 2 diabetes.
Dependence on bottled water rather than fountains can also have a serious impact on the environment.
According to the Earth Policy Institute, about 1 is needed.
5 million barrels of oil created 50 billion plastic water bottles that Americans use every year.
(Fuel is enough for 100,000 cars a year.
) These bottles are recycled for less than a quarter.
These statistics do not even indicate the fuel used when transporting water across the country and around the world.
Bottled water is also expensive.
Drinking eight glasses of tap water a day costs 49 cents a year.
If you only get hydration from the bottle, you will pay about $1,400 or 2,900 times more.
If you live below the poverty line, that\'s 10% of your income.
The transition away from the fountain also makes it more difficult to use water in public.
For example, in 2007, the University of Central Florida built a 45,000-
Seating Stadium without fountain.
The university claims their installation and maintenance costs are too high.
At the same time, selling bottled water for $3 a bottle makes a profit.
But at the beginning of the competition, the temperature was close to 100 degrees, and the water of the vendors was used up.
About 60 participants received heat treatmentrelated issues;
18 people were hospitalized for heatstroke.
The University finally installed 50 fountains.
There is some good news.
Some cities are slowly recovering.
Or at least increase-
In 2013, Los Angeles developed a comprehensive plan to upgrade and restore the public fountain.
In 2008, Minni aporiis bought 10 new fountains designed by local artists for $500,000.
In Washington, not-for-profit TapIt promotes access to tap water by driving businesses to provide free waterbottle-
Other cities, including New York, Seattle and San Francisco, have taken steps to stop using bottled water in government buildings.
Evelyn Wendell launched WeTap in Los Angeles-
After noticing that the fountains in the park where her children play are often broken or dirty, the nonprofit is working on public water promotion.
\"We can improve by teaching how valuable our municipal water is and providing it in schools and parks,\" she said . \".
\"When you provide free water to the community, this is a measure of human success.
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